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Referencing in the text.

In the Harvard system, to link the information you refer to in your text to its source (book, article, website etc.) in the reference list, you need to put the author's name and the year of publication at the appropriate point in your text.

If the author's name does not naturally occur in your writing, put the author's surname and date in brackets. If the reference is a direct quotation or an image you should also include a page number.

Direct quotation:

Gibbs and Small (2003: 377) point out that patients may feel quite well between periods of breathlessness and wheeziness as "symptoms of asthma are often intermittent"


Masterson and Pickton (2004) stress the importance that everyone involved in the purchasing decision needs to be understood.

Where there are two authors give both, where there are more than two authors, only the first followed by 'et al.' (which mean 'and others').

More than two authors:

During this decade, China will have 2 million smoking-related deaths each year; 900,000 of them will stem from lung cancer alone (Zhu et al. 1996)

If an author has published more documents in the same year, distinguish between them by adding lower-case letters.

Author has published more than one document in the same year:

In recent studies by Smith (2009a, 2009b, 2009c) he has shown that...

If you wish to cite an author quoted by another author, you can either trace the original text to read directly or quote as cited by.

Referencing an author cited by another author:

Race as cited by Freeman and Lewis (1998) highlights three key reasons for using exams as an assessment tool